Founded as early as the 9th century BC on the Gulf of Tunis, Carthage established from the 6th century onwards a trading empire extending over much of the Mediterranean world and was the seat of a brilliant civilization that dominated the region. Its rivalry with Rome led to the two ‘Punic Wars’. Carthage was finally destroyed in 146 B.C. after a long and famous military epic in which the Carthaginian generals Amilcar and his son Hannibal made history. A second Carthage, Roman, was then founded on its ruins.